Fire safety – Do I require fire doors?

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  • Fire safety – Do I require fire doors?

LACORS, Local Authorities Coordinators of Regulatory Services. It is important in respect of fire safety guidance for landlords. You need to know whether your property complies or not. Read in conjunction with the fire risk assessment article that we have done previously.

You need to understand your responsibilities. Ensuring that you comply with the current standards that are laid out.

Introduction to Fire Doors

Fire doors are now a legal requirement in all commercial buildings. Also, for most accommodation including blocks of flats. They may be required in sheltered accommodation. In Housing of multiple occupation and some larger owned houses they are necessary.

Why are they important?

You first need to understand the difference between compartmentalization and passive fire protection. Compartmentalization is the idea behind passive fire protection. The process of stopping an active fire from spreading further.

This is a structural design principal. It requires areas of the building to be sealed off from each other. They then have fire resistant materials. If a fire occurs in one area it will not spread. It will take a long time to spread to the other area. The purpose is to protect escape routes for occupants. It is expected to prevent the premises from burning down.

What is a fire door then?

A fire door is a door that stops the spread of fire. They are constructed from material designed to resist fire for a certain amount of time rather than a normal door. The most common types are either 30- or 60-minute fire resistance. You can have specialist doors made up of up to four hours of fire resistance.

You will often see fire doors signs “fire door keep shut”. These signs are mandatory and identify doors within a building. Another common indicator is the existence of a door closer which is mandatory on most fire doors.

Essential items of fire door furniture

Any component of a fire door other than the actual door leaf and its frame will fall under the term “fire door hardware”. This could also be “fire door furniture”. This includes hinges and edge guards. Some pieces of furniture are “essential items”. These are all mandatory for doors. The most important items are hinges, appropriate signage, and either a lock or an automatic door closer.

Fire doors have components such as furniture and aesthetic components. These are on the surface of the door. Or wrap around the door from one side to the other. These must be fire rated. This includes hinges in the frames. These are known as intumescent seals and strips. They are used to ensure that the door fits the property and is fitted to the top.

For example, it is no use hanging an FD60 fire door with a standard lock.

Intumescent seals and smoke protection

When hanging fire doors intumescent materials are often used to swell and enlarge when exposed to heat. This thus seals any gaps in and around a fire door blocking the path of a fire or smoke. Intumescent fire seals are required around the edges of doors although they can be attached to the frame as well.

Strips of intumescent material may be required between frame and hinges as well as the hinge in the door. Intumescent sealant is often used as an expanding foam between the frame and the wall. The intumescent seals around the edges of the doors and frame will often have integrated smoke brushes. However, these are to stop the spread of smoke and these are called cold smoke seals.

You should be aware that smoke tends to spread a lot quicker than fire. It often will not provide enough heat to activate intumescent seals. Allowing it to flow around the door within its frame. This often can’t be avoided. If not speak to the manufacturer. Fire doors leading to fire escapes often have a policy that they would need cold smoke seals.

Fire door retainers

These are put in properties to stop the spread of fire within buildings and they are essential. The whole purpose of fire doors is equipped with fire door closers. This is so that when people pass through them, they automatically close.

Fire door retainers are used when there is a free flow of people throughout a building. These can hold a door in its position. They can also release the door in case of fire allowing the door to close the door shut. They are an alternative but you should check whether they are acceptable in your area.

There are various types such as electromagnet fire door holders and acoustically activated fire doors.

There is a third option which is a premium choice and includes free swing door closers. They are battery powered and acoustically triggered as a free swing door closer. The door closer mechanism remains inactive as standard and will only activate on hearing the fire alarm.

Summary for fire doors

In conclusion, fire doors are an absolute crucial defence against the spread of fire. You should check with your local fire brigade on whether they are required. They are designed to contain a blaze for long enough for the occupants to be able to escape. Also, they will therefore be able to leave the property and limiting the damage caused by fire. They can be crucial barriers in a building.

This may change in future. See here regarding Fire door investigation.

There are different types of door retainers for instance: –

Firstly, door mouse – they are cheap retainers and have no batteries. They are installed at the top or bottom of the door or at the back of the door.

Secondly, door guard. They are a quick install and holds the door open in its position. Perfect for retro fit. They are triggered by loud continued noises and either installed at the bottom or the front of the door.

Thirdly, agrippa. Can be fitted for a specific fire alarm sound. They are installed at either the top or the bottom of the door.

Geze T000EF. They are battery operated and very easy of opening a door. They are installed at the top of the door. The bottom at the front or the back of the door.

Freedor. These are a cheaper installation and requires a battery change. They are at the top of the door or the bottom.

Lastly, agrippa free swing. A cheaper installation and can be installed at the front or back of the door.

It is important as a landlord to take everything into account. Most fires can be prevented using basic and common-sense precautions. There are specific guidelines for shared or rented properties.

Did you know?

  • About 200 people die a year in accidental fires at home
  • Not having a working smoke alarm makes the risk of dying in a fire at least four times greater
  • Faulty electrics (appliances, wiring and overloaded sockets) cause around 6000 fires in the home each year
  • Two fires a day are started by candles
  • What are your landlord’s obligations to keep your home safe from fire?
  • It is your responsibility to meet the safety requirements under the law. This includes making sure gas and electric appliances are safe and in a good working order
  • You must ensure that your property has at least one smoke alarm on every level of your home.
  • You must check that all gas appliances have a gas safety every year. They must be served on the tenant within 30 days and are acknowledged.
  • All electrical appliances must carry a British Safety standard sign.
  • As a landlord you must ensure that all furnishings are fire resistant and meet safety regulations
  • You must show that you have a fire safety certificate. These must show these to the tenants if required. You must also show them the gas and electrical appliances were checked.
  • You must ensure that carbon monoxide alarm is present. They must be in rooms containing solid fuel burning appliances. Landlords must test these and are required to have smoke alarms on the first day of the tenancy. (Please see previous article)
  • Landlords need to ensure that there is a planned escape route at the property and that everybody knows it

Therefore, it is important that a fire risk assessment is carried out every five years. You must do this for your property to ensure it is safe.

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